Marine seismic is a form of reflection seismology, which is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth’s subsurface to find and extract valuable mineral resources, such as oil or gas. A marine survey vessel tows one or more sources below the sea surface and over a subterranean formation. Receivers are located on or near the seafloor or on towed streamers. Sources, such as air guns or marine vibrators, produce a signal, which is essentially a wavefield that travels down through the water and into the subterranean formation. The wavefield may be refracted, reflected, and/or scattered to propagate toward the sea surface. The marine survey receivers measure a wavefield that was initiated by the actuation of the marine survey source. High resolution images of the subsurface can be produced as a result.

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